1. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a. Perhaps the most important step when developing forecasted financial statements is to determine the breakdown of common equity between common stock and retained earnings.
b. The first, and perhaps the most critical, step in forecasting financial requirements is to forecast future sales.
c. Forecasted financial statements, as discussed in the text, are used primarily as a part of the managerial compensation program, where management’s historical performance is evaluated.
d. The capital intensity ratio gives us an idea of the physical condition of the firm’s fixed assets.
e. The AFN equation produces more accurate forecasts than the forecasted financial statement method, especially if fixed assets are lumpy, economies of scale exist, or if excess capacity exists.
2. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a. The sustainable growth rate is the maximum achievable growth rate without the firm having to raise external funds. In other words, it is the growth rate at which the firm’s AFN equals zero.
b. If a firm’s assets are growing at a positive rate, but its retained earnings are not increasing, then it would be impossible for the firm’s AFN to be negative.
c. If a firm increases its dividend payout ratio in anticipation of higher earnings, but sales and earnings actually decrease, then the firm’s actual AFN must, mathematically, exceed the previously calculated AFN.
d. Higher sales usually require higher asset levels, and this leads to what we call AFN. However, the AFN will be zero if the firm chooses to retain all of its profits, i.e., to have a zero dividend payout ratio.
e. Dividend policy does not affect the requirement for external funds based on the AFN equation.
3. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a. When we use the AFN equation, we assume that the ratios of assets and liabilities to sales (A0*/S0 and L0*/S0) vary from year to year in a stable, predictable manner.
b. When fixed assets are added in large, discrete units as a company grows, the assumption of constant ratios is more appropriate than if assets are relatively small and can be added in small increments as sales grow.
c. Firms whose fixed assets are “lumpy” frequently have excess capacity, and this should be accounted for in the financial forecasting process.
d. For a firm that uses lumpy assets, it is impossible to have small increases in sales without expanding fixed assets.
e. There are economies of scale in the use of many kinds of assets. When economies occur the ratios are likely to remain constant over time as the size of the firm increases.
4. Last year Jain Technologies had $250 million of sales and $100 million of fixed assets, so its FA/Sales ratio was 40%. However, its fixed assets were used at only 75% of capacity. Now the company is developing its financial forecast for the coming year. As part of that process, the company wants to set its target Fixed Assets/Sales ratio at the level it would have had had it been operating at full capacity. What target FA/Sales ratio should the company set?
5. Howton&Howton Worldwide (HHW) is planning its operations for the coming year, and the CEO wants you to forecast the firm’s additional funds needed (AFN). The firm is operating at full capacity. Data for use in the forecast are shown below. However, the CEO is concerned about the impact of a change in the payout ratio from the 10% that was used in the past to 50%, which the firm’s investment bankers have recommended. Based on the AFN equation, by how much would the AFN for the coming year change if HHW increased the payout from 10% to the new and higher level? All dollars are in millions.
Last year’s sales = S0 $300.0 Last year’s accounts payable $50.0
Sales growth rate = g 40% Last year’s notes payable $15.0
Last year’s total assets = A0* $500.0 Last year’s accruals $20.0
Last year’s profit margin = PM 20.0% Initial payout ratio 10.0%